The town of Puno is the capital of the department of Puno in Peru. It was founded on November 4, 1668 by the Spanish for its closeness to the colonial silver mine of Laykakota.
Puno Peru is located at an altitude of 12,565 feet or 3,830 meters above sea level and has a population of 102,800. Puno is a small port city where the main industry is tourism, it offers a departure point to the many Inca and Pre-Inca ruins and to Lake Titicaca and its islands.
The region’s economy is based on agriculture and cattle raising activities. The area is well known for its herds of llamas and alpacas and for its traditional lifestyle. The main crops are: potato, quinoa and other tubers, yields are low due to limited access to fertilizers and seeds which only allows for subsistence farming. Rural population struggles with poverty where surviving is the main priority, illiteracy is high at 22% and higher among females than males. Health and malnutrition are related to extreme poverty, lack of clean water and sanitation infrastructure..
The town of Puno benefits from income brought by tourists visiting the Lake Titicaca National reserve.
Puno is considered the Folkloric Capital of Peru, there are more than 300 different local dances representing centuries old traditions inherited from the Incas and the colony. Folk dances and songs are accompanied by colorful costumes and masks to celebrate Catholic holidays or Inca celebrations related to the agricultural calendar. These celebrations are based on beliefs and myths of the relationship between men and god, to honor Andean gods, Catholic saints and the Virgin Mary.
The Department of Puno is located in the southeastern part of the Peruvian territory between 13 ° 00 'and 17 ° 08' South latitude and in the 71 ° 08 'and 68 ° 50' West longitude of the Greenwich meridian, in a territory of approximately 72,000 km², it represents 5.6% of the Peruvian territory, with a population of 1'200,000 inhabitants, of which 60% is rural and 40% is urban.
70% of the territory is located in the Collao plateau and 30% occupies the Amazon region.
The capital of the department is the city of Puno, a shores of the mythical Lake Titicaca, the highest navigable lake in the world, at 3,827 m.s.n.m. It is the center of conjunction of two great cultures: Quechua and Aymara; those that propitiated an incomparable patrimony of customs, rites and beliefs. The main cities are: Puno, Juliaca, Juli, Azángaro, Lampa and Ayaviri.
Puno as a process of historical evolution, had a progressive consolidation from village to city, this process has been slow and demanded activities and transcendental events that placed the city in what it is today, with more than 120,000 inhabitants and is a dynamic center of the administrative activities, economic flows and services. We analyze its growth from the ancient, colonial, republican and contemporary times.
Ancient time: 10,000 BC - 1532 AD
10,000 years a.C. hunter and gatherer nomads, united by family ties and search for food, toured the plateau, hunting tarucas, alpacas, llamas, vizcachas among others.
Tombs have been found, and caves with human remains, ceramics and weavings in the hills of the nearby hills Huajsapata and Esteves Island, belonging to aboriginal human groups with predominance of the Pucará Culture and the Tiahuanaco culture.
In the Puno Region the oldest urban center of the area was organized, called pucara, with a monumental architecture, sculpture and valuable ceramics. There the whole previous stage of domestication of high Andean plants and animals culminated and then what would be the civilization of Tiahuanaco was forged.
From that time began the construction of large buildings in the form of elongated and truncated pyramids, which would later characterize pucara. Approximately around 200 to 300 AD
When decomposing tiahuanaco between centuries XII and XIII, several independent kingdoms are formed: the Kollas, with center in atuncolla and sillustani; the Lupacas with center in Juli and Chucuito, with notable settlements like the one of Cochacacha; and the pacajes, around the Desaguadero.
Puno formed a marginal population located between the boundaries of the territories of Kollas (Quechua) to the north and Lupacas (Aymara) to the south.
An army of 200,000 warriors led by the Inca Pachacutec and his general Apo Condemayta conquer, after fierce resistance to the Kollas, who were devastated and the survivors removed, leaving only children and old people, the Incas bring mitimaes, curacas, tucuyricus and people faithful to the empire and are located in the foothills of Cerro Huajsapata.
Quechua and Inca customs are imposed, becoming Puno in a town of passage, obligatory rest, tambo and real pascana, since it was the conduit that took to the mines of Potosí in Bolivia, being thus a obligatory step.
Colonial period: 1550 AD - 1825 AD
At the visit of the Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo, in 1573, there were 4,705 inhabitants in Puno, beginning in 1575, beginning to appear as a town, assuming economic functions, mercantile relations, settlement of miners, migratory flows and trajinantes that go becoming a point of concentration, with a new role that would acquire in the seventeenth century, being a point of passage between Arequipa, Cusco, La Paz and Potosí.
In 1567, the silver mines of Laikakota were discovered, around which a population of miners began to organize and in whose space San Luis de Alba was set up.
Before 1668, the most important settlement was San Luis de Alba (5 km from the city of Puno today), the same that were occupied by the Salcedo brothers, and that were dedicated to the extraction of silver from the Laikakota mines.
In 1668, the year of the founding of Puno by Viceroy Pedro Antonio Fernández de Castro in the space that is currently the historic center of the city, an urban trace of Spanish influence is configured.
In 1734, a more consolidated settlement can be seen in the setting, the bay of Lake Titicaca begins to take importance as an artisanal port originates in what is now the city's dock, which is why Puno is growing towards the south and north sides, the topography of the hills is another important factor that determines the growth of the city compared to 1668.
Upon the creation of the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, segregated from the Viceroyalty of Peru, the territory of Puno became part of that (as Intendance from 1784) until 1796, the year he returned to Peru after twenty years.
Republican era: 1825 AD
At the beginning of the republic, in the periphery of Puno, activities such as agriculture and livestock were carried out in a lesser proportion.
In 1825 Simón Bolívar, through a decree, created the school of sciences and arts for men (which was the seed of the San Carlos school, now an old house in the 50s of the 20th century because it is a very small place and with the continuous growth of the students It is decided to change premises moving to the new building on the avenue called GUE San Carlos port that lasts until our days and a school of educated (seed of the school santa rosa), not being able to work immediately for which just started working on 16 April 1830
In 1835 the wool export to England began, this being one of the most important activities for several years.
On August 29, 1856, the San Carlos de Puno university was created with the faculties of theology, jurisprudence, medicine, philosophy and letters and natural sciences, operating at the San Carlos school in San Juan Park.
In 1871 the yavari and yapura boats arrived to puno, the port of puno began to consolidate, urban activities took a turn towards the lake, supported by the construction of the railroad, which began to operate in 1874, these two urban facilities In the coming years, Puno will be consolidated towards the eastern sector of the city on the axis that leads to the port, which generated complementary activities to the existing equipment.
By 1875 Puno had a population of 7,919 inhabitants, with a growing trend towards the southern sector of the city and the neighborhoods of Victoria, Laikakota, Orkapata; and towards the lake the sector of the Buenosairean district began to be configured like the new sector of growth. The hills Azoguine, Machallata, and Huajsapata, were limiting the growth towards the north and west sector, the sector of the mañazos was consolidated and was already integrated into the urban sprawl.
In 1900 the new urban equipment was conformed by the shooting club, velodrome and the port, that was configuring the urban growth towards the bay of puno.
In 1933 the fire of the cathedral was registered product of which to the interior all the decoration and other reasons were lost in bread of gold, for this reason it was temporarily closed.
In 1940, Puno had 13,789 inhabitants and its commercial and artisanal functions were reaffirmed, consolidating as an urban center of first hierarchy in the regional scope. In 1943 there was a great drought, the largest in history, which affected the migration from the countryside to the city during the following years, where new directions were shown
Growth and concentration of a rural population that tended to be urban.
In the year of 1950 the judicial power is installed, which means that many activities are implemented around the main square. In 1954, as a result of the migratory processes, the occupation was consolidated at the margins of the exit for the southern sector, towards the lake the sector of the Buenos Aires and Bellavista neighborhoods was consolidated.
In the decade of the 60, already it is had important works like the Stage Enrique Torres Belon (that was executed on the basis of pumice stone and covers all its facades), the great school unit San Carlos, the new hospital. In this decade there is also the appearance of another important cultural center such as the National University of the Altiplano, which leads urban growth to this sector in the subsequent years.
In 1968, when the III centenary of the transfer of the population from San Luis de Alba to Puno was celebrated, an ambitious plan of public works was undertaken, the municipal theater was projected, a closed coliseum, paving of roads as avenues. The sun, the tower, laikakota, and floral and later the av. Army New neighborhoods appear that integrate old ayllus as the case of azoguine, chanu chanu, Huáscar, santa rosa among others.
In 1970 Puno had 40,453 inhabitants.
In the 80s a process of transformation of the city began, product of socio-political violence, significant migration from the countryside to the city.
In the decade of the 90s, the migrational pressure diminishes, but the city continues to grow horizontally, the urbanizations that settle in the periphery of the city emerge, salcedo strengthens, and jayllihuaya begins to conurbate with fist.
In 1999, an asphalt plant was implemented, for which several projects have been carried out in the urban area in recent years. In the university city an aggressive program of constructions begins like the central library, faculties of medicine, education, administration, statistics, among others.
Tourism begins to grow more intensely, which is why there is a high tendency in the city for the construction of hotels, which are concentrated in the axis of the city. Sesquicentenario, and in the central area (historic center) that suffers the impacts of this as many old houses are demolished in order to build this type of infrastructure.
As of the year 2000 the asphalting of streets is continued, lookouts are built in the hills adjoining the city, the bay project is started, also called the eco tourist malecón, remodeling of the Enrique Torres Belon Stadium, the municipal swimming pool among others.
The Puno region is located in the southeast mountains of the country, on the Collao plateau at: 13 ° 0066'00 "and 17 ° 17'30" south latitude and 71 ° 06'57 "and 68 ° 48'46" of west longitude of the Greenwich meridian. Bordered by the South, with the Tacna region. For the East, with the Republic of Bolivia and for the West, with the regions of Cusco, Arequipa and Moquegua. The Puno region is located in the Altiplano between 3,812 and 5,500 meters above sea level and between the Selva de Selva and the Selva Alta between 4,200 and 500 meters above sea level. It is worth mentioning that the capital of the department is the city of Puno and it is located on the shores of Lake Titicaca.
Rivers Suche, Huancané, Ramis, Coata, Ilave, Desaguadero and San Gabán.
Lakes: Titicaca (the highest navigable lake in the world) and Arapa.
Lagoons: Lagunillas, Saca Cocha and Umayo.
Islands: Lake Titicaca: Amantani, Taquile, Soto, the archipelago of the Chirita Islands, Ustute, Quipata, Chilata, Suasi, Esteves.
In Lake Huiñaimarca: Sicaya, Lot, Caana, Pataguata and Yuspique.
Snowfall: Allin Cápac (6,000 masl) and Ananea Grande (5,830 masl).
Abras: Cruz Laca (at 4,850 masl) and Sipitlaca (at 4,800 masl) in Chucuito; Iscay Cruz (at 4,800 meters above sea level) in San Antonio de Putina; Susuyo (at 4.375 masl) in Carabaya
It is composed of the following provinces: Puno, Azángaro, Carabaya, Chucuito, El Collao, Huancané, Lampa, Melgar, Moho, San Antonio de Putina, San Román, Sandia, Yunguyo.